Comments

  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I agree that our ignorance is infinite and our knowledge is very finite but it is growing.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    The Big Bang and other galaxies are as real as the Earth. The existence of aliens is currently unknown. Please see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunning%E2%80%93Kruger_effect

    Designing smart phones is very different from knowing how life originated. You are not comparing similar things.

    We are diverging from the topic of this thread so I will limit what I say.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    You said in your reply to my post: "hmmm sci fi speculations. Not sure on these." That's why I asked you to clarify what you mean.

    I know what the concepts mean so no need for me to look them up.

    There is knowledge from over 100 PhDs that goes into making a smartphone. I don't think you are appreciating the years of research that went into developing these things.

    You said: "Your sayings are like "Because we built a 300 story building on earth, we could soon build a tower reaching Mars, Jupiter even the other Galaxies."" This is not true. We already have the technology to build a generation ship. We already have the technology to go to Mars. We are trying to reduce the cost of space travel before making the journey to Mars.

    Do you have any formal educational degree from a university in any branch of science, such as a BSc or BSc (Honours) or MSc or PhD or DSc?
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    What is sci-fi speculation? Big Bang? Other galaxies? Other stars? Black holes? Interstellar travel? Please clarify.

    We have sent probes to the farthest planets of our solar system and even outside the solar system. We have sent people to the moon. Astronauts have lived for months at a time on board the International Space Station. The Russian cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov spent 437 consecutive days on the Mir space station. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valeri_Polyakov We are preparing to send people to Mars and I am convinced that we will succeed within the next 50 years. I may not live to see it but my children probably will.

    We could use generational ships for interstellar travel. These ships could grow food onboard and have facilities for having children and educating them as they grow and learn while travelling towards another star. We could do this with the current level of technology.

    If we ever learn to build the warp drives used in Star Trek we could travel much faster than the speed of light. I know that this is science fiction for now. However, television, radio, computers, the internet and mobile phones were science fiction not long ago. They are all real now thanks to science and technology.

    If a large asteroid were to strike Earth, the Earth could be destroyed and all living things here could become extinct. The dinosaurs became extinct due to asteroid strike. To increase the probability of human survival, we must become a multiplanet species. It would be even better to become a multi-star-system species and a multigalactic species and a multiversal species.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    Please see https://www.bbc.co.uk/teach/how-do-we-know-the-big-bang-actually-happened/zjn68xs to learn how we know that the Universe we appear to live in began with a Big Bang. The name is misleading as there was no sound involved. It should be called Tiny Beginning. It's true that we can't visit other galaxies or even other stars or black holes with our current level of technology. However, in a few hundred years we may be able to.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I agree with you. What we know through science changes over time as we refine our instruments and think of better methods for testing hypotheses. However, there are many limitations to science. Not all hypotheses can be tested. According to Hinduism, we are souls experiencing an illusion called Maya. Souls reincarnate according to karma into this illusion. It is impossible to prove or disprove this idea.

    The fundamental problem with knowing anything objectively cannot be overcome unless one is all-knowing.

    A lot of people consider shared subjective truths to be objective truths. Most people will say that the Earth is objectively real. It is not. The Earth is one of many things that are part of our shared subjective reality. Sentient beings could be souls plugged into a simulation of the Earth, the Milky Way and the Universe. This hypothesis can't be tested by science. Of course, just because it can't be tested it does not make it true but it does not make it false either. It just makes it untestable and unknowable.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I am interested in everything that is true. That's why I study, research and think about truth constantly.

    There are many limitations to philosophy. That's why I use science in my search for the whole truth. Unfortunately, we cannot know anything to be objectively true. Some truths are exclusively subjective e.g. what it is like to be me and what it is like to be you or what it is like for an elephant to be an elephant. Other truths are shared subjective e.g. our perceptions of being on a planet called the Earth in a galaxy called the Milky Way in a universe.

    Thank you for recommending the book. I look forward to reading it.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I am not blaming you for having different thoughts from me. We don't choose what thoughts occur to us. Our thoughts are the result of our genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences interacting with each other. I have done many experiments to test the effects of genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences. I recommend that you study physics, chemistry, biology, genetics and neuroscience to help you understand more.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    My definition of free will is a will that is free from determinants and constraints. I clearly don't have free will because my will is both determined and constrained by my genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences. I clearly have a determined and constrained will instead of a free will. My genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences compelled me to post the posts I have posted on this forum. If you had my genes, my environments, my nutrients, and my experiences you would have been typing these words where and when I am typing these words. Conversely, if I had your genes, your environments, your nutrients, and your experiences I would have been reading these words where and when you are reading these words. We are all prisoners of causality living inevitable lives, making inevitable choices, and dying inevitable deaths.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    Organisms do not have the ability to make choices that are free from their genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences. All choices made by all organisms are determined and constrained by their genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences.

    To prove me wrong, you would have to do the following:
    1. Live forever without consuming any oxygen, fluids, and food.
    2. Do things other organisms e.g. tardigrades, dolphins, chameleons, etc. can do.
    3. Be able to teleport everywhere and everywhen.
    4. Prevent all suffering, inequality, injustice, and deaths.
    5. Make all living things (including the dead ones and the never born ones) forever happy.
    6. Be all-loving, all-knowing, and all-powerful.

    Once you have done the above tasks, I will be convinced that you have free will. If I had free will I would have already done the above tasks.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    None of the actions you mentioned are free from our genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences. As I explained in my previous post, you can't go for a walk if you have locked-in syndrome or are tied up or are unconscious. If you had the genes of a virus you would not be going for walks or reading or sleeping or listening to music or discussing what is real.

    I am a vegan but I want to be non-consumer. It is impossible for me to live without consuming any oxygen, water and vegan food.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    Genes are the foundation for biological organisms. If I had the genes of a dolphin I would have been able to put half of my brain to sleep and keep the other half awake the way dolphins do but I can't do it because I don't have the genes of a dolphin. If I had the genes of a chameleon I would have been able to change the colour of my skin at will but I can't do it because I don't have the genes of a chameleon. If I had the genes of a tardigrade, I could survive in the vacuum of space without a space suit. I can't do it because I don't have the genes of a tardigrade. I could cite millions of cases like this.

    If I was put in a very hot environment or very cold environment I would die. This is because my body can maintain homeostasis only within a narrow temperature range. If I had free will, I would have been fine at 1000 degrees Celsius and at minus 270 degrees Celsius. If I was put in a vat of acid, I would die because my body would be consumed by the acid.

    I depend on nutrients for my existence. If I was deprived of oxygen, water and food I would die. If I had free will I would have been able to live without consuming any oxygen, water and food. I hate having to breathe, drink and eat. I long to live without consuming anything but I can't do it because I lack free will.

    My experiences have a huge effect on all of my choices. I am having this conversation with you in English. If I had never learned English, it would not have been possible for me to have this conversation with you in English. I would love to be fluent in the 600+ languages that are still around without having to learn them.

    Every single choice made by organisms is the result of their genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences.

    If I have a stroke giving me locked-in syndrome, I would not be able to go for a walk. If someone kidnaps me and ties me up, I would not be able to go for a walk. If someone knocks me unconscious, I would not even have the thought of going for a walk, never mind going for a walk. The examples are endless.

    As I suffer from depression, I am unable to sleep well.

    I am completely certain of the following:
    1. I am conscious.
    2. I am typing in English.
    3. I am not all-knowing.
    4. I am not all-powerful.
    5. I change.
    6. I can't do lots of things I really want to do e.g. go back in time and prevent all suffering, inequality, injustice, and deaths and make all living things forever happy.
    7. I do some things even though I don't want to do them. Here are some things I have done, currently do or will do even though I don't want to do them:

    1. Breathe
    2. Eat
    3. Drink
    4. Sleep
    5. Dream
    7. Pee
    8. Poo
    9. Fart
    10. Burp
    11. Sneeze
    12. Cough
    13. Age
    14. Get ill
    15. Get injured
    16. Sweat
    17. Cry
    18. Suffer
    19. Snore
    20. Think
    21. Feel
    22. Choose
    23. Be conceived
    24. Be born
    25. Remember some events that I don't want to remember
    26. Forget information that I want to remember
    27. Die


    I am almost certain of the following:
    1. I and all the other organisms currently alive will die. Every second brings all organisms closer to death.
    2. My body, other organisms, the Earth and the Universe really exist and they are not part of a simulation or hallucination or dream or illusion. It is impossible to be completely certain about this.
    3. Other organisms e.g. humans, cows, dogs, cats, chickens, pigs, lions, elephants, butterflies, whales, dolphins, etc. are conscious.
    4. Being a vegan is more ethical than being a vegetarian and being a vegetarian is more ethical than being an omnivore.
    5. Gods do not exist.
    6. Souls do not exist.
    7. Reincarnation does not happen.
    8. Resurrection does not happen.
    10. Organisms evolved and were not created by God or Gods.
    11. 99.9% of all the species to evolve so far on Earth became extinct in 5 mass extinctions long before humans evolved.
    12. Humans and other organisms do not have free will. Our wills are determined and constrained by our genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences. The reason I have put this one in the almost certain category is that it is possible that bodies, genes, cells, stars, planets, moons, galaxies, universes, may not actually exist. These things could be part of a simulation or dream or hallucination or illusion. It is impossible to know with complete certainty. I could be a solipsistic soul experiencing the illusion of being in a human body - I have no way to test this idea.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    Yes, they can go for a walk or sleep etc. but these things are not free from the effects of genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences. They are determined and constrained by the variables.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    How can all life be both deterministic and free? They are the opposite of each other.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I agree that all lives are unique, irreplaceable and never to be repeated. I am still trying to figure out the answer to my question: "Aren't all organisms prisoners of causality who live inevitable lives and die inevitable deaths?" I am almost certain that determinism is true but I am not completely certain. I don't know if I will ever be completely certain. What about you?
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    Thank you very much. What if I can't judge any of them as right or wrong? Would that not leave me in my current agnostic stance? If I had the genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences of another sentient organism e.g. Descartes, Hume, Kant, Kierkegaard, Harold Shipman, Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Albert Einstein, Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, William Tyndale, Mohandas Gandhi, Celine Dion, Margaret Thatcher, Marie Curie, Myra Hindley, Siddhartha Gautama, a cow, a spider, an ant, a chimpanzee, a whale, a shark, a tiger, a dinosaur, a jellyfish, a starfish, a penguin, a squid, an octopus, a dolphin, a giraffe, a chicken, a dog, a cat, a pig, an alien in another galaxy, etc. would I not have thought their thoughts, felt their feelings and made their choices? Aren't all organisms prisoners of causality who live inevitable lives and die inevitable deaths?
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    Thank you ever so much for your most helpful summary. Who is right?
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    Thank you very much for the recommendation. I look forward to reading them.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I agree. Well done for spotting the error. I have spotted errors and omissions in various references but in two cases they refused to correct the errors.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    All references are prone to errors, omissions, bias, etc. Unless one is omniscient, one has to handle known unknowns and unknown unknowns.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    Thank you ever so much for your detailed reply and for the books you have recommended. I look forward to reading them. Compared to omniscience, I know extremely little. So, I am learning new things daily. I had never heard of Russell's paradox until you mentioned it. I looked up https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russell%27s_paradox as I find Wikipedia to be a good starting point for learning about any topic.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I want to learn more about mysticism. That's why in a previous post, I asked you to recommend books but you did not recommend any. Also, you did not answer my questions.

    Please see:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mysticism
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perennial_philosophy
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monism
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nondualism

    My knowledge about mysticism, Perennial philosophy, monism and nondualism is limited to what I have read on Wikipedia.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    You have claimed that mystics know the truth and that nondualism is true. You have not proven these two statements.

    There were and are many mystics and they all don't have identical worldviews. Which specific mystic or mystics are correct? How do we know that they are correct?

    I asked in an earlier post: "Is solipsism true? Is idealism true? Is materialism true? Is monism true? Is dualism true? Is determinism true? Do souls exist?"

    You said that the answer to all of these questions is "no". How can that be? Monism is nondualism. You claimed elsewhere that nondualism is true. If nondualism is true then monism is true. How do you know the answer to any of these questions?

    I did not say that nothing can be known.

    So far, I am completely certain of the following:
    1. I am conscious.
    2. I am typing in English.
    3. I am not all-knowing.
    4. I am not all-powerful.
    5. I change.
    6. I can't do lots of things I really want to do e.g. go back in time and prevent all suffering, inequality, injustice, and deaths and make all living things forever happy.
    7. I do some things even though I don't want to do them. Here are some things I have done, currently do or will do even though I don't want to do them:

    1. Breathe
    2. Eat
    3. Drink
    4. Sleep
    5. Dream
    7. Pee
    8. Poo
    9. Fart
    10. Burp
    11. Sneeze
    12. Cough
    13. Age
    14. Get ill
    15. Get injured
    16. Sweat
    17. Cry
    18. Suffer
    19. Snore
    20. Think
    21. Feel
    22. Choose
    23. Be conceived
    24. Be born
    25. Remember some events that I don't want to remember
    26. Forget information that I want to remember
    27. Die

    I am almost certain of the following:
    1. I and all the other organisms currently alive will die. Every second brings all organisms closer to death.
    2. My body, other organisms, the Earth and the Universe really exist.
    3. Other organisms e.g. humans, cows, dogs, cats, chickens, pigs, lions, elephants, butterflies, whales, dolphins, etc. are conscious.
    4. Being a vegan is more ethical than being a vegetarian and being a vegetarian is more ethical than being an omnivore.
    5. Gods do not exist.
    6. Souls do not exist.
    7. Reincarnation does not happen.
    8. Resurrection does not happen.
    10. Organisms evolved and were not created by God or Gods.
    11. 99.9% of all the species to evolve so far on Earth became extinct in 5 mass extinctions long before humans evolved.
    12. Humans and other organisms do not have free will. Our wills are determined and constrained by our genes, environments, nutrients, and experiences.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    No, someone could be convinced that they know the truth about reality yet be mistaken about reality. I have met people who believe that the Earth is flat. They are 100% sure that they are right. I am 100% sure that they are wrong. Why are the answers to my questions "no"? What incontrovertible evidence do you have to prove your claims?
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I don't understand your reply. I am sorry about that. Please explain what you mean. Which books are you recommending that we read? Thank you.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    If you can prove your claims, please do.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I didn't call mystics liars. I am an agnostic regarding not just the existence and nature of Gods but also about the nature of reality. Is solipsism true? Is idealism true? Is materialism true? Is monism true? Is dualism true? Is determinism true? Do souls exist? I don't know yet. I may never know and that's ok.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    Thank you for your thoughtful reply. I do mean that they are untestable by sensory empiricism. Please tell me what empirical evidence there is that lends these ideas credibility. Mystics may believe their claims, but they could be mistaken about their claims. Being mistaken makes them wrong without making them a liar.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I am not saying you are wrong. I am not saying your are right either. I really don't know. So sorry about not being omniscient and omnipotent.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    I am trying to learn whether randomness actually exists and how that affects everything else. It's ok if you don't know. I don't know either. I know a very tiny amount and my ignorance is infinite. That's why I am the Truth Seeker and not the Truth Knower.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    How do you know that randomness exists and is free from determinants and constraints? Only omnipotence is free from constraints. I don't know if omnipotence actually exists. I also don't know if omnipotence is free from determinants.
  • What can I know with 100% certainty?
    How does randomness fit into my definition of free will? How do you know that randomness exists?